3.1 Financing of cultural activities
Financial resources to subsidize culture in Portugal are provided both on the central and local levels. Although still rather marginal in the total amounts spent on culture, the private sector continuously increases its share. The Sponsorship Law has been adopted; sponsorship payments are tax deductible and are treated as normal business expenditure, provided the level of expenditure is reasonable in relation to the company’s activities.
According to the Law, maximum corporate relief for donations is 0.2 per cent of turnover, plus 50 per cent relief for donations in excess of this. The three most important foundations are the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, the Fundação Oriente and the Fundação Luso-Americana para o desenvolvimento.
For example, the most important of the mentioned foundations, the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian ensures some 25 per cent of all the funding of the arts and culture in Portugal. As far as it concerns the share of government cultural expenditure in 1995, it was as follows:
Instituto Português de Museus 12.9
Fundação das Descobertas 12.3
Instituto das Artes Cénicas (The Drama Institute) 11.4
Fundação Nacional de S. Carlos 9.1
Archives and Libraries 8.6
Library and Book Institute 7.4 Culture Promotion Fund 7
Architecture and Archaeology 5.4
General Directorate for Cultural Events 5.3
General Directorate for Services of Administration Organization 3.5
The Dance Institute, Art Academies, Cabinet for International Relations, Film and Audiovisual Art, regional delegations and Cabinet of the Secretary of State and Under-secretary of state all shared the expenditure from 0.4 to 2.7 per cent.
It is notable that most of the funds allocated to culture are spent on cultural heritage and the promotion of Portuguese discoveries.
According to the Sponsorship Law, sponsorship payments are tax deductible and are treated as normal business expenditure.
4. SECTORIAL POLICIES
4.1 Cultural heritage
The Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeologial Heritage (Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico e Arqueológico) is the main coordinating body dedicated to the safeguarding of cultural property.
The Portuguese Institute of Museums (Instituto Português de Museus) coordinates most public museums and cultural properties.
The Torre do Tombo National Archives is an institution in charge of most Portuguese archives and the Torre do Tombo Archives in Lisbon.
4.2 Cultural education and training
4.3 Performing arts
Two national theatres (Teatro Nacional de S. Carlos and Teatro Nacional D. Maria II) and the national ballet company (Companhia Nacional de Bailado e da Dança) are supervised by the State Secretariat for Culture. There are also a number of professional theatre companies and international theatre festivals, for instance, the International Festival of Iberic Expression Theatre held in Oporto.
4.4 Visual and fine arts
Besides the National Academy of Fine Arts and the National Fine Arts Society, there are also several regular events like the Biennale of Design and the Biennale in Vila Nova de Cerveira.
4.5 Literature and literary production
The Portuguese Institute for the National Library and Books (Instituto Português da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro) supervises the work of the National Library and promotes books, publishing and translation activities.
The other most important organizations involved in literature and literary production are: Associação Portuguesa de Escritores, Sociedade de Língua Portuguesa, Associação de Jornalistas e Homens de Letras do Porto, Associação Portuguesa de Editores e Livreiros and Associação Portuguesa dos Bibliotecários, Arquivistas e Documentalistas.
Two big Book Fairs are held annually (in Lisbon and in Oporto), organized by the Associação Portuguesa de Editores e Livreiros. 23 regional and local fairs are organized over the whole country.
The governmental responsibility for music lies within the Direcção-Geral dos Espetáculos and the Teatro Nacional de S. Carlos.
Opera and music also benefit from special services of some private foundations.
There are also a number of musical groups, 20 associations, 10 academies and some 15 conservatories and music schools that offer various music degrees. Also, a number of music festivals are run all over the country.
5. CULTURAL INDUSTRIES
5.1 Book publishing
The Portuguese Institute for the National Library and Books (Instituto Português da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro) is in charge of planning and implementing the measures to support publishing (its frame of reference does not include schoolbooks).
The Institute provides subsidies for the publication of quality titles in Portugal and for foreign translation and publication of Portuguese literature. The Institute also helps the literary associations with their programmes. Together with the Portuguese Publishers and Booksellers Association, it supports thirteen national book fairs and Portuguese participation in international book fairs.
A number of municipal libraries receive subsidies to enlarge their holdings and rebuild the facilities. The Institute awards grants to scholars studying the Portuguese language/literature/culture, and together with various other institutions, it supervises and finances several literary prizes.
The main body responsible for managing subsidies for the information media is the Presidency of the Government. It also handles the distribution of official information, governmental publicity, documentation, and relations with journalists.
Upon the recommendation of a committee consisting of professionals and representatives of the Directorate, projects of technological modernization are chosen for subsidies. A similar procedure is followed in the selection of general information newspapers that receive subsidies. A reduction of telecommunication rates and ground travel expenses for journalists are also provided, and training programmes for journalists are supported.
5.3 Broadcasting and sound recording industry
In 1995, there were three transmission/broadcasting organizations in Portugal: Radiotelevisão Portuguesa (RTP), Sociedade Indipendente de Comunicação (SIC) and Televisão Indipendente (TVI). RTP covers four channels: Canal 1, TV-2, RTP-Madeira and RTP-Açores. Canal 1 covers 98 per cent of the population, TV-2 80 per cent, RTP-Madeira 96,9 per cent and RTP-Açores 89,5 per cent. Canal 1 had 117 programming hours a week in 1995 and TV-2 94.
RTP also broadcasts at the international level.
Commercial revenues of the RTP amounted to 69 per cent and grants to 31 per cent in 1995.
Cultural share in programming is as follows: music accounts for 3,4 per cent of the RTP programme and arts/humanities/sciences for 3,7 per cent.
At the beginning of 1996, Portugal had four cable operator companies.
There were 3,134.000 TV households in Portugal in 1995 and 1,434.000 VCR households. 6 per cent of the population possessed double equipment of VCRs in the same year.
5.4 Cinema and film industry
The Institute for Cinematography and the Audiovisual Arts (Instituto Português da Arte Cinematográfica e Audiovisual) coordinates cultural initiatives in support of the national film production and distribution. The funds for its activities come from tax levies on the distribution of full-length films (with the exception of those classified as quality titles) and advertising films on TV and in the cinema. No other assigned government subsidies are allocated.
Limited subsidies are provided automatically for all national producers of full-length films, as additional aid to cover production costs. A national committee of appointed experts selects full-length films for state subsidies and loans. Dissemination of national films is also supported, as well as the rebuilding and construction of new cinemas and the Portuguese Cinemateca.
In 1995, there were 8 film production companies in Portugal.
6. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
The participation in cultural life, according to most recent surveys, shows that marked differences between urban and rural areas of the country still persist. Modern cultural life is more easily practised in cities, especially big ones, while the participation of the population in rural areas falls behind.
However, the ever growing presence of the media is generally shaping a more home-based model of cultural consumption, making the same goods equally accessible for all the inhabitants, regardless of their environment and distance from, or proximity to, cultural facilities.
Public measures to stimulate participation and creativity have increased in the most recent period. This is particularly true with regard to young people, where the Institute for Youth and some other bodies have introduced significant incentives, such as ticket price reductions for a wide range of cultural events, stronger media-oriented marketing of cultural projects, etc.