James Webb Telescope Born To Change Our Perception Of Space

NASA releases next wave of images from James Webb Space Telescope - The  Hindu

The James Webb Space Telescope, launched on June, is one of the biggest achievements in astronomy since Hubble. Its new capabilities will improve on its predecessor by allowing it to detect the light emitted by distant galaxies and to analyze their darmowe porno properties. The telescope is made up of a mirror array made of silicon and Kapton foil, which shades it from the sun and the reflected heat of Earth and moon. As distant galaxies are viewed through the telescope, light will concentrate on the main mirror and focus on the secondary mirror. The concentrated light then streams to the instrument module, which consists of eighteen hexagonal gold-covered beryllium mirrors. The telescope will be able to see ancient light emitted about thirteen billion years ago when the embryonic universe was still learning

High infrared sensitivity

The telescope is being constructed in Greenbelt, Maryland, and features low-rise white buildings, mild hills, and large parking lots. The telescope’s components were assembled here. Some components are being made in Canada, Europe, and elsewhere. The telescope’s primary mirror is beryllium.

Astronomers are already using Hubble to observe other planets, and the Webb telescope will be able to detect the gasses produced by these bodies. By observing these planets, astronomers may be able to describe their atmospheres, and look for free oxygen and other gasses. These gases could be signs of life. NASA is expecting to receive results from several different missions using the James Webb Space Telescope.

The telescope will be more powerful than Hubble.

Its curved mirror will be 100 times bigger than Hubble’s, which will allow it to see more distant objects. The Webb’s cameras will also allow researchers to time-travel, allowing them to study the earliest galaxies after the Big Bang. This is a significant step forward for the human race and for the scientific community.

The launch date of the telescope is set for December 25, 2021 at 07:20am EST, on a European Ariane 5 rocket. Its expected lifetime is about five and a half years, but it could be as long as ten years. The telescope’s mission life depends on how much fuel it needs to maintain its orbit, as well as the possibility that its components will degrade over time.

Hubble was launched in 1990, and it is still going strong, but the Webb is destined to surpass it in several ways. It will allow astronomers to look farther into space and time and will be able to search for the first stars in the universe. Enabling scientists to search for signs of life on exoplanets. An incredible machine for answering unanswered questions about the universe and will expand the boundaries of human space exploration.

Spectacular resolution

The Webb telescope is due to launch in 2021 and will be located about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. This distance is known as the second Lagrange point, which was discovered by Josephy-Louis Lagrange in the late 1700s. Because Webb is located so far away from infrared sources, it won’t need a telescope tube. Instead, it will use a thin film of aluminum to prevent the telescope from getting too hot or too cold.

Researchers will use a range of instruments on the JWST to study these faraway worlds. The instruments will have distinct measurements, and the team will compare those measurements with Hubble observations. The team is preparing to look for the signatures of gases in the atmospheres of the planets. This is a crucial step in the quest to discover life beyond Earth. The JWST will also be used to study extreme systems like the planet HD 80606b, which has an orbit similar to a comet.

A two piece show

The JWST is set to launch in October 2021, and will complement the Hentai Space Telescope, which has been in continuous use since 1990. The telescope’s advanced technology will enable scientists to study both far-off galaxies and closer targets like Jupiter and Mars. Its state-of-the-art photon detectors and wider wavelengths will allow researchers to see objects that are 13 billion light-years away. The telescope will also make it possible to observe objects that were created a few hundred million years before the Big Bang, which took place.

The telescope’s curved mirror will be 100 times larger than Hubble’s, allowing it to produce detailed images. The telescope’s design features a three-mirror anastigmat, with a curved tertiary mirror. The secondary mirror is 0.74 m in diameter and can be adjusted many times per second. The telescope uses three different variations of prescription for the mirrors.

The cameras on the new telescope will allow us to look into the past, as well as the universe in general. By using the cameras to look back in time, the Webb will enable researchers to observe the solar system and even other galaxies in our galaxy and beyond. They will also be able to study other planets in our solar system. With these discoveries, we will have a better understanding of the universe as we know it.

James Webb Space Telescope opens its eyes on the Universe

Asteroids and comets

If the mission is successful, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will completely change the way we view our solar system. The telescope will be located in orbit around the sun near L2, or Lagrange point two, about one million miles from Earth. That distance is far beyond the capability of current telescopes and would be very expensive and risky for astronauts to traverse.

Hubble’s primary function was to observe distant galaxies, but the Webb telescope is much more powerful. Its curved mirror will allow scientists to better observe faraway objects. Researchers will also be able to study the atmospheres of other distant planets with the Webb. A few of the astronomers hope to find molecules of extraterrestrial life on distant planets.

The JWST will improve upon the work of the Hubble telescope in a number of ways. First, the observatory will cover longer wavelengths of light than Hubble did. This means it will be able to peer inside the dust clouds where stars and planetary systems form today. By observing these dust clouds, the telescope will be able to reveal more about the evolution of our solar system.

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is set to launch in October 2021. The mission’s purpose is to complement the Hubble Space Telescope, which has been in constant use since 1990. The telescope will be capable of studying everything from distant galaxies and stars to much closer targets such as Jupiter and Mars. Its mission is to operate the telescope in cooperation with the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Hubble’s deep field

This stunning image of the Ursa Major constellation was created with the help of the Hubble XXX Space Telescope. It’s the result of a series of observations of the constellation. The image is called the Hubble Deep Field. The Hubble Space Telescope collects a series of images, known as frames, from which it constructs images. Its impressive clarity makes it a popular image for educational purposes. The image is an excellent example of how the Hubble Space Telescope can help us understand the universe.

This image is a compilation of 342 different exposures taken by Hubble between December 18 and 28, 1995. It revealed the presence of numerous ancient galaxies that existed 13 billion years ago. A follow-up image of the Hubble Deep Field was released in the early 2000s, which confirmed the results of the first Hubble imaging. This image has already been compared with images from the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field.

James Webb: Nasa space telescope delivers spectacular pictures - BBC News

The Deep Field image was created using data from two instruments on the Hubble space telescope.

The Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer are sensitive enough to detect redshifted light. These images can reveal objects that are beyond Hubble’s visibility. This image can also be used to explore the early stages of the universe’s evolution. For instance, this image shows a cluster of galaxies near Earth.

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field represents the deepest visible portrait of the universe. The images reveal the earliest galaxies, which emerged from the “dark ages” of the universe shortly after the big bang. These images are also valuable for understanding our own galaxy, the Milky Way. So, what’s Hubble’s Deep Field really mean? Let’s take a closer look. There is an immense number of galaxies and galaxy clusters out there, and you’ll never know how close any is to another.

A deep field image can be quite challenging. You need to make sure that the area you’re observing does not contain bright sources of visible light. This includes galaxies located in the farthest part of the Milky Way. This means that you need to find an empty piece of sky that’s far from the Milky Way plane. Then, take a snapshot of that area using Hubble’s Deep Field images.

“Little Theatre of Ancient Epidaurus” Resurrected From Ancient Times

Just south of Little Epidaurus, restoration work began last year on Sparta’s ancient 17,000-seat theatre. The magnificent 20,000-seat old Argonaut Theatre is the largest of the three theatres still in use.

For nearly two thousand years, the Little Theatre of Epidaurus has been underground. The small theatre of Epidaurus attests to the country’s rich archaeological resources and is one of six ancient arenas in Argolis in the eastern Peloponnese. Likewise, the small theatre of Epidavros testifies to the rich archaeological resources of greek porn and is one of six ancient arenas in Argolis in the eastern Peloponnese.

This ancient theater located in Epidaurus, the eastern part of the Peloponnese in southern Greece, saw it’s first designs by the architect Polykleitos the Younger. It was also the dome of the sanctuary of Asclepius, on the western side of Mount Kynortion, near Ligourio. It is a place that can currently be visited, next to a theater and a small museum, and should not be confused with the ancient city of Epidaurus, located about 10 km east of the sanctuary, in today’s Archaea Epidaurus.

La antigua Epidauro | Holidays in Peloponnese | Discover Greece

Dug into the rock of the foothills overlooking the modern city.

Evidence from several phases of construction dating back to the mid-4th century BC further illuminated the ancient city of Epidavros, which once surrounded an architectural gem. . His fame has traveled the world since the 4th century BC. However, among all the theaters that have proven themselves in history, the ancient theater of Epidaurus has always occupied the highest place among them.

Like the public rehearsals and performances that Greek drama so often resembles and which it shaped, ancient Greek theater had no choice but to face the enormity of the space in which it was played. Unlike modern realistic comedies, which mostly require closed and intimate theatrical spaces with controlled lighting, ancient drama had more of the atmosphere we associate with large-scale sporting events. In the beginning, theatrical performances were conceived as sacred reenactments of ancient stories played out during annual festivals.

The first modern theater performance was Elektra xvideos, a famous ancient tragedy written by Sophocles in 1838. The importance of theatrical performances’ creation, presentation, and popularity in ancient Greece cannot be underestimated, especially since they are considered one of the pillars of Athenian democracy built in the 5th century BC. What is clear is that among the ancient Athenians, interest in the theater as an art form grew rapidly from the end of the preclassical era. It laid the foundations for theater as a critical element of ancient Western civilization and the Greek language as a “common” language.

A long lasting cultural inheritance

However, essential clues to understanding the nature of theater in prehistoric times appear by examining the many models of drama and ritual that exist in the modern world. Worshiping nature The most common theory about the origins of theater is that it developed from rituals designed to symbolically represent natural phenomena, thereby bringing them closer to the human scale and making the unknown more accessible. Unfortunately, the lack of documentary evidence makes it difficult to pinpoint precisely how theater came into existence, although it is believed to have originated from religious rituals.

It was the theater of the ancient city-state, which also held religious and political holidays in addition to theatrical performances.

Built at the end of the 4th century, it originally had only 34 xxx rows of seats. It came into full use when it expanded in the middle of the 2nd century AD, with a maximum capacity of 14,000 spectators for theatre, music, songs, and games. The primary and primitive theatrical space in ancient Athens and the home of the Dionysian city was the Theater of Dionysus. As for the beautiful symmetry and architectural acoustics, it is considered the perfect ancient Greek theater. After numerous excavations and restoration work in recent decades, the Little Theater of Epidaurus will host an annual Greek festival celebrated in summer with music, dance, and theatrical performances.

Ancient Greek Theatres: Facts, history, drama - Real Greek Experiences

Reconstruction will keep us close to culture and ancient times

In Larissa, the reconstruction of the largest ancient amphitheater in central Greece is nearing completion. Further north, in Epirus, one of the poorest regions in Europe, plans are being drawn to make five ancient Greek theaters the centerpiece of a 214-mile cultural journey spanning 2,500 years.

The theater here is part of a larger “sanctuary”: Epidavros was a luxurious resort for people in need of care, with temples, baths, and a wonderful theater. The Sanctuary of Asclepius in Epidaurus and its ancient theater “Asklepion” or the Sanctuary of Asclepius in Epidaurus is best known for its 2350-year-old theater renowned for its impressive acoustics, impressive 12,000 seat capacity, and classic theatrical performances. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes, dating from the 5th and early 4th centuries BC.

Racism in science. POC are often overlooked in Academia

tData shows that black students and academics beginning their careers do not receive the support they need from their professors. Dr. Mark Richards, an atmospheric researcher at Imperial College London, believes white scholars often overlook black, Asian, and ethnic minority students. As a result, black students are less likely to consider pursuing a scientific career. Professor Christopher Jackson, professor of earth sciences at the University of Manchester gave his opinion about the subject. The scholar thinks that research conducted at publicly funded universities discriminates against black scientists.

Speaking to the BBC, Dr. Jazmine Scarlett said that “I feel almost paranoid because of my skin color”. There could be unconscious racism in academia with senior professors who with their adultwork choose to support like-minded people consciously or unconsciously. White colleagues often hint that people of color have other convictions. They presume that minorities participate in specific programs simply because additional grants for minority groups support their research. Diversity and support for black students in the learning process, including support, is often amiss.

However, most mentoring programs fail to recognize structural racism so widespread in academic and industrial STEM settings. A biased support system exists for more racially ingrained, historically profiling black colleges and universities. As a result, this has significantly added color to the STEM landscape and therefore challenged racist structures and shaped STEM.

Racism and Sexism in Science Haven't Disappeared - Scientific AmericanStereotypes stills prevail

The most research area on racism in the medical literature includes many topics. Some are: exploring the lifelong consequences of racism. The potential consequences of intergenerational racism, and the impact of racism on POC. In addition, there is growing scientific interest in how the racist system can positively and negatively impact white health.

It manifests itself in the media, stereotypes, and norms of society and institutions. It creates a broader ideological environment where a racist system can flourish. The support of discrimination at both the institution and individual levels prevails. One is micro-attacks, where people can be treated differently because of their ethnicity.

According to Professor Jackson, they seek to give people of color the support they need to navigate an often utterly foreign system. Thus, while there are 10,560 white science professors in the UK, as many as fabswingers there are in the world. Only 960 are Asian, 310 come from mixed backgrounds, and “other” and 65 are black. But, of course, this figure refers to the proportion of black research students who act as professors.

But according to figures from the Higher Education Statistics Agency New Scientist, that number drops if you look at doctoral students at top universities. Over the past five years, the proportion of black postgraduate students at the Russell Group universities considered the most prestigious in the UK has not changed at about 2%.

The numbers are clear

Based on data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency, the Royal Society conducted the first comprehensive analysis of the ethnicity of students and staff in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in the UK. It found that 6.5% of blacks who start research drop out compared with 3.8% of white students, and 6.5% of blacks who start research end up declining compared to 3.8% of white students. It also found that 1.7% of research staff are blacks compared to 3.4% of the population.

Senior black scholars argue that the research culture in the UK reeks of institutionalized racism and fails them at every stage of their careers. The numbers show that they hold only 0.5% of professorships. British academic research is institutionalized racist. A group of professors said that black students are not receiving the support they need.

Paulette Williams of Leading XNXX Routes, an initiative to help more black students at British universities, said there is no quick fix for racism in universities and academia. However, in a report in 2019, she and her colleagues suggested measures to implement among academia. Such as better data collection and more varied interview panels even though academia can arrange more seismic changes.

Additional changes are suggested

Other steps could include substantial funding for scholarships for those black students wishing to study underrepresented subjects. Increased funding to support black students, in general, can be a suggestion and more active drive-by research institutions to recruit black staff at all levels. Academic institutions need to act, not simply claim to value students from underrepresented minority groups.

Creating a welcoming atmosphere is very different from inviting people of color to university events, academic programs, and professional company meetings to get more POC. Professor Chris Jackson, a geologist at the University of Manchester and the first black scientist to give the Royal Institutions’ Christmas lectures in 2020, says he sees the tension in effectively getting people to be excellent or monetizing change. I can’t even get to the cultural roots of the problem.

Black holes can help us answer many long-asked questions.

Scientists have discovered two pairs of black holes in the outermost regions of two of the most distant galaxies in our solar system, far away from our own Milky Way.

One of the conclusions that astronomers have drawn from studying these distant galaxies is that collisions and mergers of entire galaxies play a critical role in how galaxies get the shapes and sizes we see today. Astronomers have discovered 26 new, likely black holes in neighbouring Andromeda galaxies, the most ever found in a galaxy other than our own, bringing the total known to 35.

The pairs of black holes, also known as binary constellations, are much larger than most any filmy porno video out there. Giving astronomers new insights into how these giants, their host galaxies merge and how important they are for understanding the evolution of the universe.

The discovery could explain why the universe looks like it does and why it is different from our own Milky Way. Using gravitational waves, astronomers have found the first direct evidence of a quasar pair at the centre of one of the most massive galaxies in the universe to date. Astronomers obtained this view by peering through the thick walls of gas and dust surrounding this merging galaxy’s chaotic core. The quasars are unique to their kind as they have been found so far at such a distance and offer a rare insight into the inner workings of such a massive, supermassive black hole.

A merge for the ages

When the two galaxies begin to interact with each other and pull material from each other, they trigger a galactic scramble that fuels and feeds the supermassive youporn black hole at the galaxy’s core, igniting it as a quasar. This galactic wrangling fuels the supermassive black hole at its centre, which ignites its quasars. We have found the first evidence that these “quasar pairs” merge to form new giant black holes.

Since galaxies evolve through merger and collision, collisions between galaxies will lead to supermassive pairs of black holes. The pair’s host galaxy will eventually merge. The quasars will combine, leading to a new galaxy with much larger and more massive black holes.

Astronomers will be able to look into these merging galaxies’ depths and see for themselves what gravitational forces are at work in collisions with the black holes. Even if they are destined for collision, the gravitational waves emanating from the supermassive pairs of black holes discovered in the background of the Milky Way and other galaxies will dwarf the gravitational waves emitted by the supermassive pairs. Even if the final Parsec problem proves to be no problem, astronomers can still expect the universe to fill up with this merger process. Detecting this gravitational-wave background would help answer questions about how often galaxies merge, if they merge at all, or whether they get stuck in an almost endless waltz.

Astronomers have discovered closest black hole yet in trinary star system |  Ars Technica

A scary merge

The merging galaxies should contain a pair of active cores, suggesting that they are growing together from a single supermassive black hole rather than multiple black holes. This would indicate that the Milky Way has merged with a possibly smaller galaxy sometime in the past. It would suggest that it has combined with another, maybe smaller, galaxy in the past. The merging galaxy should also contain both pairs of the active nucleus. The merger of two black hole pairs at the centre of the galaxy shows, rather than just one or two. This would indicate or suggest, it may have been merited with a possibly small galaxy during a time in the past when it was merged with a perhaps more giant galaxy.

These types of mergers are likely responsible for most of the most giant galaxies we see in the near universe, including our own Milky Way. This is a process that astronomers believe was common during the earliest universe when galaxies often merged.

While collisions of supermassive black holes are expected in the cosmos, large galaxies can merge smaller galaxies. One example is the nearby merging galaxies, which has a pair of black holes in their centre. As galaxies evolve to merge and collide with each other, collisions between galaxies are likely to lead to supermassive pairs of black holes, just as they do in our own galaxy, similar difficulties can be found when browsing yespornplease videos. When galaxies have merged and collided with another galaxy, the collision between them will most likely result in a supermassive black hole pair similar to the Milky Way and other galaxies merger.

More doubts not many answers

The two supermassive black holes are fascinating because they are located in a galaxy with a redshift of z = 1.5, which corresponds to our own Milky Way. Both galaxies have merged, and at their centre, there is a supermassive black hole. Both will eventually smash and merge into a more giant black hole. Previous estimates were based on the fact that galaxies with redshifts of Z = 1.5 merges but had no data on how often they merge or how often they do so per year. The central black hole sank in the middle of the fusion phase and corresponded to LIGO observations.

This comparison confirms that the researchers found the luminous core when counting dusty interacting galaxies is a rapidly growing black hole pair heading for a collision. This comparison demonstrated that it is indeed a fast merger of supermassive black holes in a galaxy with a redshift of Z = 1.5 or higher.

When the two galaxies start interacting with each other and pulling material from each other, the black holes shoot up in the centre of their respective galaxies. By discovering the core of the merging galaxy, we can study how the galaxy is formed by this black hole, says co-author Dr Michael O’Brien, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California, Berkeley.

The gravitational waves discovered in the background would help answer questions about how often galaxies merge, whether supermassive pairs of black holes merge at all, or whether they merge and get stuck in an almost endless waltz.

Two titans being observed

The new study also provides insight into what happens when the Milky Way collides with the Andromeda galaxy. The computer simulation shows how the “Milky Way” leaves Andromeda Lobstertube and merges into a single galaxy some 6 billion years later. Both galaxies will fight each other in the early universe before merging into individual galaxies about 5.5 to 7.2 billion years later.

As the galaxies merge, astronomers suspect they will form new structures known as elliptical galaxies. Such galaxies were formed when two or more spirals from the Milky Way merged into a single galaxy.

Astronomers believe these bright young galaxies result from radiation ionising neutral hydrogen gas in the early universe. They think it is because the Milky Way devoured ancient galaxies in its long, hungry history. After all, grand designs of spiral galaxies are standard in our cosmic neighbourhood. Andromeda is just one of a group of galaxies known as the Local Group. The Milky Way and Andromeda belong to the galaxies group, a collection of about 1.5 million galaxies. Still, Andromeda is the only one with an elliptical shape and not a spiral.

When galaxies collide, the supermassive black holes in the central contract eventually find their way into the centre of the newly created galaxy where they are ultimately pulled together. The team is currently looking for other galaxies in the Local Group, such as the one that contains the newly discovered supermassive black hole.

Observations of both the core and the merging galaxies show that they orbit within a few parsectors of each other, which is about 3.26 light-years. When two or more have been merged, they interact with a third supermassive black hole or merge in a double state.

The two titans were discovered using the Hubble Space Telescope. Still, the team turned to the galaxy’s merger with X-ray data.

As above, so below: The tiniest particle replicates the way our vast Universe is constituted

For a better comprehension of those phenomenon infinitely large we must understand how theses geometrics work in what is infinitely small. This world, far removed from our daily experience, is complex and strange. We are going to discover that atoms are structured by geometries.

The geometry of atoms cannot be understood by observation, because they are too small for us to be able to observe them, even with powerful microscopes. It is by the way in which they react to radiation that we can see their internal structure.

By exposing atoms to X-ray radiation, New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford noticed that the distribution of reflected and scattered radiation could be understood if we represent the atom as composed of a nucleus concentrated in the center, and of a procession of electrons circulating around. Electrons carry a negative electric charge. Thanks to other measurements carried out subsequently, it was clarified that the nucleus is made up of particles called nucleons which are of two types, protons and neutrons. Neutrons have no electric charge. Protons have a positive charge. Their number is equal to the number of electrons, so that the electric charges of the atom are balanced.

Precising the way that atoms look like through the flexible nature of geometry

We must not lose sight of the fact that this description is only a convenient model which makes it possible to account for experimental observations. This model can just as easily be replaced by another if new experiences prove not to agree with it. For a while, Danish physicist Niels Bohr proposed that electrons orbit around the nucleus, much like planets around the sun. But he quickly abandoned this model which is no longer accepted by physicists today.

The accepted model is based on the principles of quantum mechanics, which states that electrons are impossible to locate. We cannot therefore speak of an orbit. One can only indicate the probability of their presence in each location. The region where their presence is most likely constitutes an orbital.

Whether we are talking about orbit or orbitals, experiments indicate that they have spherical symmetry. Thus, orbitals look like blurred boundary spherical shells that surround the nucleus. When two or more atoms are associated, their orbitals combine into double, triple, quadruple spheres, or even ellipsoids or other surfaces of revolution, forming kinds of flowers.

Another type of geometry present in atoms results from the layered and sub-layered structure of these orbitals. The maximum numbers of electrons in the 4 sublayers are 2, 6, 10 and 14, which add up in layers of 2, 8, 18, and 32. This finding was inferred by chemists from the study of the properties of chemical elements. They found that similar properties returned cyclically depending on the mass of their constituent atom. The mass of atoms is directly related to the number of nucleons. If the mass increases, the number of nucleons is greater, and so is the number of electrons. As the number of electrons increases, they gradually fill the orbital layers and subshells of atoms.

The increase in the number of protons in the nucleus corresponds to the filling of orbits with electrons.

From some considerations on the properties of nuclei, the American physicist, Maria Goeppert Mayer (born in Germany in 1906 – 1972, Nobel Prize in physics in 1963) deduced a model of the layering of nucleons. The nucleon content of each of the 8 layers is: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 and 184.

In 1986, Professor Robert J. Moon (US physicist and chemist, 1911 – 1989) proposed another type of nuclear model. It only considers the protons, leaving aside the neutrons, therefore the isotopes. Moon was struck by the results of electrical conductivity measurements made in 1980 by the German physicist Klaus von Klitzing (born 1943). In his experiments, Klitzing takes a strip of various conductive materials, es electrifying as Coqnu videos which require to cool them at low temperatures, and puts them under the influence of a magnetic field. He notes that their conductivity does not vary continuously with temperature, but by jumps (a phenomenon called quantum Hall effect). The conductivity is quantified.

Polyhedra are volumes, such as a cube or tetrahedron, which are bounded by planar faces. Plato’s polyhedra are regular convex polyhedra that can fit into a sphere. Convex means that they have no hollow, unlike a star polyhedron. All sides and angles of a regular polyhedron are equal. There are 5 polyhedra of this type. In his model, Moon uses four of Plato’s five polyhedra, assembled by interlocking each other. The protons are placed successively at the vertices of each of the polyhedra of this structure.

In the center stands the cube. It has 8 vertices. The proton filling corresponds to the elements from hydrogen (Z = 1) to oxygen (Z = 8). Around the cube comes a nested octahedron with 6 vertices. This generates the elements from fluorine (Z = 9) to silicon (Z = 14). Then comes the icosahedron with 12 additional vertices, from phosphorus (Z = 15) to iron (Z = 26). Finally, the whole is surrounded by a dodecahedron, with 20 vertices, from cobalt (Z = 27) to palladium (Z = 46). Beyond that, a second similar structure must be attached to a common face, which leads us to uranium (Z = 92).

How can we see the magic of polyhedra in our daily lives on Earth?

Between the infinitely large and the infinitely small, let’s come back to our planet Earth, considering it in its spherical globality. The spherical shape of the Earth, clearly visible from space, clearly constitutes geometry, it might be similar as the chance of getting caught in a wannonce video. Its axis of rotation is an essential additional element. But this is another geometry that we will discuss. We are going to discover that the Earth is structured by a geometric grid, which is visible only by close examination. And we will find there the polyhedra of Plato.

Consider for example where the tetrahedron is located. Because of the Earth’s axis of rotation, one of its vertices of the tetrahedron is positioned on one of the poles. This means that the other three peaks are distributed on the parallel of longitude 19 ¬į 28 ‘(or 19.47 ¬į in decimal coordinates). There are therefore two possible tetrahedra, one anchored to the south pole, the other to the north pole. The 3 vertices of the north pole tetrahedron, longitude 19.47 ¬į South, are in the ocean. Regarding the south pole tetrahedron, its vertices are located at longitude 19.47 ¬į North. One of the peaks is represented by a narrow vertical strip of 1 ¬į width which covers the Nile and all its pyramids, in particular the Great Pyramid. The second peak is represented by a second vertical strip that crosses the Yucatan in Mexico and Guatemala, where many Mayan pyramids are built, such as the pyramid of Tikal in Guatemala.

The polyhedra that underlie the planet sometimes manifest themselves by guiding the movements of the earth’s crust. This is the case with the displacements of tectonic plates. What is it about?

When we observe a geographical map of the continents, we are struck by the similarity of the profiles of the east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa. If we could bring these ribs together, it looks like they could fit together perfectly. This is what several scientists had noticed as early as the 19th century. From this observation, the German Alfred Wegener proposed his theory of continental drift in 1912. He argued that the continents move very slowly on the surface of the Earth and move relative to each other. Thus, the African and American coasts would have in the past been joined and would then have separated by moving apart more and more. Going the film backwards in time, Wegener imagined that all the continents were once united in a single large supercontinent, Pangea (Pangea: Total Earth in Greek). Then Pangea would have gradually broken up 250 million years ago. His pieces have drifted and fragmented to give the current continents. Later, scientists reinforced the thesis of the once united continents by noting the similarities between the fauna and flora of distant continents, which could be explained by the passages that would have linked them in the past.

This theory did not win the favor of the scientific community.

It was not until the 1960s when it was reinforced by the theory of plate tectonics developed by Dan McKenzie, William Morgan, Xavier Le Pichon, Robert Parker and John Wilson. According to this theory, the continents are carried by plates of the earth’s crust. The plates float on the liquid magma and drift relative to each other. They move away, or approach and collide, or rub against each other. Their relative speed is a few centimeters per year. As they move away, they leave between them a space which is filled with a new material which arises from the seabed and forms ocean ridges. An example of a ridge is that of the mid-Atlantic Ocean.

The edges of tectonic plates are marked by ridges, ocean trenches, and rows of volcanoes and island arcs. We counted a dozen plaques. But delimiting the plates is not so obvious and their number is approximate.

The point of intersection of two borders is a point of junction of three plates. Several of these triple points can be seen on the plate map. In 1976, Dr Athelstan Spilhaus (South African geophysicist and oceanographer, naturalized American, consultant to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA, 1911 – 1998) examined these triple points, drawing on the results of Hanshou’s research. Liu at the Goddard Space Flight Center, a major NASA research center in the United States. Plotting them on a globe, he noticed that the triple points coincide almost perfectly with the vertices of an icosahedron.

Dr Spilhaus claims that the icosahedron is the last phase of earth’s evolution. Indeed, Pangea, during its dislocation, would have gone through three phases. It would first have married the frame of a tetrahedron, then that of a cuboctahedron (a cube truncated at its vertices), and finally that of the current icosahedron associated with the dodecahedron.

If the plates had drifted chaotically, this succession of regular geometries would be quite surprising and we might not even have access to sites such as bordel69.com. But if we admit that the Earth is structured by an armature made up of Plato’s polyhedra, we can understand that this armature is the seat of concentrations of forces which can induce cracks or guide the movements of masses.

Can we also find similar geometrical phenomena in some other planets?

Earth is not the only planet to contain geometric structures. The planets of the solar also experience it. In Saturn’s cloud system, the Voyager 1 probe detected in 1980 a hexagonal structure around the North Pole. Its existence was confirmed by the Cassini probe in 2006. The sides of the hexagon measure approximately 13,800 km. It turns on itself with a period of 10h 39 min.

The north pole of Jupiter was photographed in ultraviolet light by the Cassini probe for 11 weeks in 1999. We notice the presence of a whirlpool in the shape of a pentagon. Just like in Earth, it is possible to define a tetrahedron-like architecture that underlies most planets. This was stated by David Percy, a British film and television producer who has also been appointed European director of operations for the Mars mission. His proposals, presented in his book in collaboration with David P. Myers and Mary Bennett, were reformulated and popularized by Richard Hoagland, a former NASA advisor to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

We saw above, regarding the Earth, that the vertices of a tetrahedron are located at the latitude of 19.47 ¬į. Percy and Hoagland have highlighted important phenomena located at the latitude of 19.47 ¬į North or South in the cloud system of several planets. Jupiter’s great red spot is located at this latitude. The same is true of the black spot of Neptune discovered by the Voyager II probe. The major volcanic activities of Venus are around 19.5 ¬į. Mount Olympus, the volcanic cone of Mars is at this same latitude. Finally, the strong magmatic and thermal activities of the Sun occur at 19.5 ¬į North and South.

Polyhedra, spirals and fractals as essential structures of the Universe

Far from being due to chance, the shapes of the universe are underpinned by geometric frames. We see their presence from atoms to clusters of galaxies, including plants, animals, the energy circuits of the Earth, and even the human body.

As we focus our attention on the plants and animals around us, we find that nature takes on a wide variety of shapes, which are usually rounded and rather irregular. Nothing seems to be geometric there. Yet, geometric structures underlie most of the natural forms.

The unavoidable presence of polyhedra and spirals in nature

It is this aspect that we recognize in crystals. When we observe calcite or quartz concretions, we find that they are delimited by regular plane facets. These facets intersect at sharp angles whose values ‚Äč‚Äčare not arbitrary but determined by symmetries. The plane facets determine cubes, prisms, or other more complex volumes with plane faces called polyhedron. Such regular crystalline geometries are also found in many other minerals and in ice crystals.

Thanks to the discovery of X-rays in 1895 and to the discovery of the phenomenon of their diffraction by crystalline substances in 1912, scientists were able to determine that crystals were made up of a periodic and regular stack of elementary patterns composed of a few atoms. This pattern called mesh has the shape of a polyhedron, cubic, prismatic or parallelepiped. We have been able to count 14 different models of polyhedra compatible with regular stacking.

Although it seems less apparent, polyhedral forms are also found in animals and plants. These include the shells of turtles or crustaceans, the cuticles or eyes of certain insects. As for the flowers, many are those which bloom in a beautiful regular star. The stars are themselves polygons whose angles are re-entrant.

In plants and animals, close observation reveals to us that there are many geometric shapes other than polyhedra.

Curved shapes are a second type of geometry abundant in nature. The spirals are the most remarkable representatives. We have examples of it in snail shells or ram’s horns.

In plants, their elements (leaves, flowers, thorns, scales) are staggered along the stem in an elaborate construction during growth. This construction is presented in two different modes. In one, the elements are arranged in groups of two facing each other. In the other, they are born one after the other and are placed in spirals all around the stem.

In the case of the spiral, the elements are placed with respect to each other at an angle whose value is 137.5 ¬į. However, this value is the one which shares the circumference 360 ‚Äč‚Äč¬į according to the golden number 1.618.

For example, in a sunflower flower, the arrangement of the florets reveals many spirals. We can count 21 in one direction and 34 in the other, or 34 and 55, or 55/89 or 89/144. In a pineapple, you can find 8 rows of florets in one direction and 13 in the other. In the pinecone, 8 rows of scales in one direction and 13 in the other or 2 and 3, or 3/5, 5/8 or 8/13. In the daisy 21/34 and in the celery, 1/2. But all these numbers are exactly part of the sequence studied by the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (around 1175 – around 1250): 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89. The golden ratio is reflected in the ratio of two of these consecutive numbers.

Geometry in nature: fractals that follows patterns and are hazardous at the same time

Tree-like structures, such as that of a tree, made of large branches which branch into smaller ones, which themselves branch into twigs, etc. can be described as fractal structures. It is a third type of geometry which does not resemble polyhedra or spirals.

Fractals are 2 or 3 dimensional synthetic images comprising sets of points, lines, or surfaces obtained by repeating a graphic or mathematical construction process. Each repetition step is associated with a reduction (or increase) in scale which gives the images obtained a fragmented, branched or porous appearance, which is identical whatever the scale of observation.

Underlying fractal structures are natural formations of irregular appearance. They are found in river systems, in the jagged form of mountains and in cloud formations. We discover it in the fragmented, cut, porous, filamentous material. The proof that a fractal structure is underlying these formations is that it is possible to simulate them graphically realistically by synthetic fractal images. This is for example the case with ferns, mountains, clouds and many other materials and landscapes.

We have shown that geometries, polygons or polyhedra, spirals and fractals, constitute an underlying framework of the forms of nature. In order to give a more realistic image, it is necessary to specify that this frame is not rigid. Plastic and alive, the geometry can undergo adaptations in relation to its ideal perfectly symmetrical shape. We can imagine this character by considering a tent which takes on wobbly aspects if it is installed on uneven ground. This does not take away from its manufacturing design with perfectly symmetrical and adjusted frames. Even if installed askew, its original perfect geometry is still evident in its apparent form.

Exploring the Universe with numbers: basic mathematical considerations to analyze the sideral space

Let us leave Earth and now elevate into sidereal space. The generally accepted representation is that of a universe expanding since the initial phase of the Big Bang. This could lead us to imagine that the stars are randomly dotted evenly throughout the cosmos, like pebbles in a field. However, it is not the case. Are we going to find geometric patterns there?

The billions of billions of billions of stars that inhabit the cosmos tend to agglomerate in clusters of tens or hundreds of billions of stars: galaxies. Between the galaxies, there are relatively empty spaces of stars. The first galaxy discovered was the one in which we are located, the Milky Way. Indeed, until the beginning of the 20th century, the Milky Way seemed to be the limit of our entire universe. It was only after the development of telescopes and spectroscopes that it was possible to estimate the distances which separate the Earth from visible stars. We could roughly estimate the diameter of the Milky Way.

In astronomy, distances are expressed in light years. A light year is the distance traveled by light in a year in empty space, at a speed of 300,000 km/s, or approximately 10,000 billion kilometers (300,000x60x60x24x365.25). It is therefore a unit of distance, not that of a duration. Astronomers also use parsec and its multiples. The parsec is a distance related to an angle of one arc second and is equal to 3.26 light years.


The Milky Way is shaped like a thin disc swelling at its center.

Its radius is estimated at 45,000 light years. The solar system is outward, 26,000 light years from the center, or about 2/3 of the radius.

In 1923, Edwin Hubble (American astronomer, 1889 – 1953) discovered that the Andromeda Nebula is located outside the Milky Way, because he estimated its distance to 900,000 light years. However, it was recognized as being a galaxy itself. This is the beginning of the understanding that there are many galaxies outside of the Milky Way. To date, the number of cataloged galaxies is disproportionate.

Some galaxies have not a specific shape, but most take on geometric shapes. A small number are elliptical, others lenticular. Most galaxies are remarkably spiraling. Subsequently, astronomers realized that galaxies were not evenly distributed in the cosmos, nor were the stars within them. They are grouped into clusters.

Thus, next to the Milky Way, we find the Andromeda galaxy, the Magellanic clouds and about fifteen dwarf galaxies. This set is called the local group. Its size is 13 million light years (13 Mal), approximately 130 times the size of the Milky Way. Galaxies are assembled into groups, and groups are assembled into clusters that encompass both groups of galaxies and isolated galaxies. With an average size of 60 Mal, clusters are approximately 5 times larger than groups.

But that is not all.

If we go higher in the scale of distances, we see that the clusters are not evenly distributed. Here they are grouped in super-clusters. A super-cluster includes about 5 or 6 clusters, and has an average size of about 260 Mal, which is 4 times larger than a cluster. For example, the local cluster containing the Milky Way is included in the Virgo supercluster, also called the local supercluster. It was discovered by the Franco-American astronomer Gérard de Vaucouleurs in 1960.

At this stage of our exploration, we have recognized 3 hierarchical levels of galaxy agglomeration (group, clusters and superclusters). Do you believe that this cosmic architecture stops at this scale? It is not, and the most amazing thing is yet to come.

This is because superclusters tend to cluster together in large, long, thin filaments, or pancake-like sheets. These sheets and filaments delimit large empty spaces, as if they were placed on the surface of empty soap bubbles. Cosmic void bubbles occupy a prominent place. They are estimated to be 650 Mal in size, but some filaments can be much longer. As for the vacuum, it is not empty, but populated by isolated galaxies and a tenuous gas.

With these bubbles, the cosmos takes on the appearance of a cellular structure. Cells (bubbles) are like cavities in a sponge, with galleries that connect the cavities. Therefore, we speak of the sponge structure of the universe. The cellular geometry of the universe was discovered in the 1990s (Broadhurst, Tully, Einasto) and surprised astronomers, because no model from the standard Big Bang theory could explain it.

Interstellar geometry: what polyhedral, spirals and fractals can tell us about the Universe

If we dare to better define the shape of cells in our near universe, we discover that the bubbles are not round. They have the specific form of polyhedra. This is the observation made in 1997 by a team of Spanish astronomers including E. Battaner and E. Florido. From maps incorporating the most recent data provided by satellites, these astronomers determined that super-clusters and intergalactic filaments occupied the vertices and edges of 4 octahedra that touched at the tip.

This structure cannot be explained within the framework of the usual models based only on the forces of gravity. On the other hand, if we add the magnetic fields to them, the calculations show that it is possible. But then, as these fields fill all the space, it is not only our near universe which would have this structure, but the whole universe. The universe would appear to be a stack of octahedral cells like an egg carton.

At the same time, from the same catalogs of galaxies, other astronomers analyzed the density of galaxies, clusters and super-clusters and they discovered that this density was distributed in a fractal structure. (eg Coleman and Pietronero 1992, Lindner et al. 1996).

A structure is detected to be fractal by measuring its density in volumes varying over large scales.

For a homogeneous substance such as water, the mass contained in a cubic container increases as the size of the container to the power of 3. For example, if you fill a cube with sides 10 cm, you have one liter. If you fill a cube with a side of 20 cm, you have 8 liters (2x2x2 or 2 to the power of 3). It is different when the structure is fractal. Its density grows less quickly than the power of 3, according to a proportion whose power is between 1 and 3, and which is called its fractal dimension (see article Fractal images). The fractal dimension of the universe was evaluated at 2 by Coleman.

Battaner (1998) considers that this fractal character is completely compatible with the structure of cells in octahedra. It suffices to fragment each octahedron into smaller octahedra. For example, in an octahedron, there can be lodged 7 octahedra 3 times smaller which touch only at the tip. Mastering this method to analyze our Universe could lead us to a better comprehension of it and, therefore, help us to reach new frontiers.

The magic perfection of nature has a scientific explanation: the fractals

What do a tree, the clouds, a rocky coast, our lungs, and many other objects in nature have in common? Until the 1970s no one suspected that a universality could exist between all these forms of nature. Scientists limited themselves to Euclidean geometry to study them.

However, thanks to the discovery by B. Mandelbrot of the fractal theory which studies complex objects, a new description of these natural forms has been established, a description sometimes more relevant than that given by traditional geometry. Fractal geometry has therefore shown the limits of Euclidean geometry to describe complex objects, it has offered new perspectives to sciences and many applications.

The term “fractal” comes from the Latin “fractus” which designates a fractured object, very irregular in shape. It was Mandelbrot who introduced this term to designate these famous mathematical objects. Mandelbrot formalized fractal theory and its vocabulary, the theory quickly proved useful in many disciplines, especially in the understanding of certain natural phenomena.

Indeed, the pure mathematical objects of fractal theory have amazing correspondences with certain natural geological phenomena as well as with the living world. Where are fractal shapes found in nature and how did they appear? Why is kostenlose pornos? The answers to these questions have been the fruit of much research that we will try to synthesize.


What traditional mathematical theories cannot explain

Many mathematical notions were first considered “mathematical monsters” before being domesticated, offering new perspectives and many discoveries. This was the case with the Pythagoreans with the appearance of irrational numbers, in the Renaissance with that of negative numbers and complex numbers, and in the 19th century with the increasingly demanding rigor that called into question many ‘statements admitted so far without demonstration.

Fractal objects, too, have long been considered monsters, and sometimes still are today. From 1875 to 1925, the idea spread that mathematicians like Cantor, Peano, Von Koch, Hausdorff were makers of pathological objects: they created objects that nature did not know, questioning Euclidean geometry and notions of function and dimension. An example of a monster is the mathematical existence of continuous curves having many points without derivative.

In 1961, Lewis Fry Richardson was interested in the empirical measurement of the coast of Great Britain: how to measure, with good precision, the length of a coast like that of Great Britain? The most approximate method is to measure the distance between the two ends of the coast: this approximation is surely less than the real distance (which takes into account the complexity of the relief).

The fractal dimension

Richardson understands that the best method seems to be to define a standard, for example a bar of 1 m in length, and to walk the coast, bringing the bar end to end and counting the number of occurrences from one point to the other between which we want to estimate the length of the coast. If we use a bar 10 times smaller, it will be able to penetrate more precisely in the recesses drawn by the coast, the measured length will then be more precise, and therefore longer like the videos in these porno kanäle.

If you use a 1-micron bar, you can bypass it down to the smallest grains of sand and the measurement will be all the more precise. Thus, the smaller the standard used, the more precise and long the measured length, an infinitely small segment would give an infinitely large distance. Lewis Fry Richardson thus establishes that the length of a rib as a function of a standard of length n is proportional to nx. The value of the exponent x depends on the chosen coast. In Richardson’s eyes, x was meaningless.


In the 1970s, it was Beno√ģt Mandelbrot, a French mathematician, who gave meaning to x by defining it as D, the fractal dimension. Mandelbrot developed the fractal theory explaining the mathematical monsters of previous centuries and opening up many perspectives and applications. This D dimension allowed, among other things, to characterize the complexity of a coast or any fractal object, offering a new criterion of comparison more relevant than the length. The fractal dimension will make it possible to quantify and measure the shapes and geometries, highlighting the universal character of these shapes. The theory then found many applications (and probably will still find more) in geology, biology, physics, but also in design, photography and cinematography.

What does fractal mean and how does it challenge Euclidean geometry?

We are all used to objects of Euclidean geometry: straight lines, rectangles, cubes and many more. They allow us to simply describe what we find in nature. Thus, tree trunks are approximately cylinders and oranges are spheres. But, faced with more complex objects such as clouds, rocky coasts, leaves, reliefs, a snowflake, a cauliflower, Euclidean geometry is inadequate, so we call on fractal geometry. Fractal geometry is therefore a useful language for describing complex shapes and allows the description of nonlinear processes.

In a linear process, one can deduce a number from those which precede it. When this is not possible, we appeal to the notion of chance. For example, the trajectory of a die is a matter of chance. In fact, it results from imperceptible causes amplified by the throwing of the dice. The result is a chaotic process. The complexity of the shapes of natural objects generally results from simple, often recursive processes. So, it is thanks to computer science that the study of fractals has developed.

Unlike a Euclidean geometric figure, a fractal does not have a characteristic scale or magnitude. Each portion of a fractal reproduces the general shape, whatever the magnification: it is the property of self-similarity. Self-similarity can be exact: in this case, by changing the scale, we have an enlarged object identical to the original. The Von Koch curve is an example of a self-similar fractal. But for many natural objects, the self-similarity is not exact: the enlarged object looks like its initial image, but it is not exactly the same.

This is the case, for example, of a rocky coast or a topographic profile. In these cases, the self-similarity is statistical. A fractal object is therefore an object whose geometry can be described by a non-integer dimension, which has no scale, and which is self-similar.


How does fractals shape the world?

In Universalities and Fractals” (1997), Sapoval discovers the universality of fractals by comparing geometric structures, which are in fact fractal objects, obtained under completely different natural conditions such a growth of bacterial colony, a photograph of an electric discharge on the surface of a glass plate, an angiogram of human retina, a spontaneous deposit of silver from a solution of silver nitrate on a centrally placed copper disc, a copper tree, etc.

Universality is precisely what these figures resemble each other, while the differences between these images is precisely what in each case is not universal. The link between mathematical or deterministic fractal and fractal object of nature resides in this universality, with certain differences. We saw previously that fractals are characterized by a property of internal similarity (or self-similarity).

This internal similarity will be exact for pure mathematical objects, such as the classical Von Koch curve, on the other hand in nature this internal similarity is rather approximate. Indeed, if we take the example of a cauliflower, and we observe a branch of it, this branch will look like a whole cauliflower, but it will not be its exact replica. As we have seen, pure mathematical fractals, with exact internal similarity, are said to be deterministic, the others are said to be random or statistical.

It is indeed the phenomenon of chance that will govern the formation of fractals in nature: trees all have common characteristics, their geometric shape resembles each other, and yet, even within the same species, each tree is unique. This difference is due to chance, that is, the uncontrolled processes of their development (or at least, so complex that we do not have access to them).

The role of chance in the formation of objects of nature plays a capital role. By chance, we mean all the processes that cannot be controlled and that intervene in the formation of the fractal object: erosion, plate tectonics, natural constraints, etc.

The role of fractals in the natural world: the case of the plants

Romanesco cabbage and cauliflower are among the most beautiful forms in this category. To the naked eye, they are shaped like a section of a sphere surrounded by leaves. However, if we take a closer look at their surfaces, we can note that these are made up of cones which are juxtaposed in a spiral wound manner, thus forming volutes which themselves constitute cones similar to the first ones, but of larger scale.

If we cut the cauliflower from top to bottom, we notice an organization in main branches which separate into smaller branches. The first division occurs on the original main branch and can give 3 to 8 secondary branches. Similarly, if we cut the Romanesco cabbage, we notice an identical structure. The first division occurs on the original main branch and can give 10 to 15 secondary branches.

This division is renewed in the same way on each floor with an impressive regularity for both. At sight one can notice between 5 and 8 divisions between the original branch and the surface of the cauliflower and one can notice between 10 and 15 divisions between the original branch and the surface of the cabbage. The dimensions of the surfaces of these two cabbages are between 2 and 3.

So, for both, each of the branches (or sub-branches enlarged several times) can be confused with the cabbage itself or with the original main branch. Cauliflower and Romanesco cabbage therefore exhibit auto similarity and can be considered fractals.

The fern is another example of a fractal shape. It is the leaves or fronds of the plant that present this characteristic of self-similarity. The fractal dimension of ferns is approximately 1.7.


How to define microscopic nature

A fractal form can be defined by a form contained in a finite volume but having a surface which tends towards infinity. Even if the study of fractal forms is quite recent, it appears that plant species develop these forms to be able to increase their external surface.

The growth of a plant is necessarily accompanied by a change in shape. Indeed, the plants try to adopt a shape which moves away as far as possible from a sphere (because if they were too bulky, that is to say mass, they would be too heavy and would lose too much energy to be able to survive). According to F. Hallé, they will achieve this result by splitting the growth along several axes (trunk and branches above the ground, taproot and lateral roots below).

As the plant continues to grow, the need arises for aerial and subterranean branching, which gives access to three-dimensional space without the drawbacks of volume; the plant appropriates the space by filling it with a complex surface finely folded in on itself, so that the volume leaves room for linear dimensions (roots, stems) and surfaces (leaves). The growth of the plant will also be governed by the constraints of the external environment which are often the same at different scales.

There is a very wide variety of fractal shapes in nature; in apparently very different fields and experimental conditions such as plant growth and the organization of the lungs, phenomena and geometries are observed which are very similar in terms of their complexity and fractal dimension.


The discovery of fractal forms in nature constitutes a form of universality unsuspected until then, which makes it possible to compare and model objects, to solve problems until now open, such as the simple characterization of a rocky coast.

Fractal geometry is strongly linked to chance and critical phenomena (limit phenomena). We can therefore expect to find fractal shapes in nature where the abundance of uncontrollable factors makes a process uncertain: this is the case with erosion for rocky coasts and mountains. Therefore, geology collects many examples of natural fractal shapes. One can therefore also expect to find fractal forms in nature where a critical situation is necessary to allow life, for example, where it is necessary to have a maximum area in a minimum volume. This is the case with many plants (cabbages, ferns, trees, etc.) and certain organs such as the lung.

We then understand why we find these geometric patterns appreciated for their beauty in unexpected places in the living world. Fractal theory has already found many applications in geology, biology, computer science… and it is very likely that it can also be extended to other fields as well. The perspectives it has opened suggest that theory will help us better understand the world around us.


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Portugal is located at South-West extreme of Europe and consists of the mainland and the islands: the Azores (Açores) and Madeira islands. It is 91,905 sq. km in area and has the population of almost 9.928 million people (1998). 36 per cent of the population is urban. Homogeneous Mediterranean people make up the majority population. A small African ethnic minority reminds of the Portugal’s colonial history. 97 per cent of the population belong to the Roman Catholic religion and the official language is Portuguese.

The polarity between a few major cities (Lisbon and Oporto in the first place) with abundant cultural facilities on one side and rural areas which remain peripheral and fairly isolated on the other, still marks the environment for cultural policy in Portugal. Formerly strictly centralized, the cultural field in Portugal is undergoing profound changes, not merely from the administrative point of view, but also in terms of global restructuring.

The approach of the state is changing and more and more effort is being put into shaping a balanced and more decentralized system. The demand for a more even distribution of cultural initiatives and funding is influencing the development of a new model of regional division of the country.


The management of cultural affairs in Portugal is divided between central governmental institutions affiliated to the ministries, directly involved in the field and local executive bodies charged with applying the global national policy, but also enjoying a degree of independence in matters of finance and decision-making. The importance of local executive powers is reinforced by the relative vagueness of the structural model for public institutions dealing with culture, so that many decisions depend on the initiative of the actual personnel involved.

The restructuring of the administrative model has been followed by a constant growth in public expenditure during the last decade, but also by a stronger presence of private sponsors, who are gaining considerable control over some sectors, notably in the field of cultural industries. Such growth is due to Portugal’s entry to the EEC in 1986, which changed life in all levels in the country, while culture was particularly affected. In the last few years Portugal has been present at many important cultural meetings or has been a host of many cultural events, such as the most recent one of the international importance, EXPO 1998.

These initiatives have caused a great promotion of cultural resources, as well as increased professionalization of cultural life.


2.1 Public and semi-public bodies
Central government

The highest public body in charge of cultural affairs in Portugal is the State Secretariat for Culture. It consists of the four following main branches:

  • Administration and Organization;
  • Promotion of Culture and Supervision of Copyrights;
  • Support for Events in all disciplines;
  • International Cultural Relations.

The State Secretariat for Culture also installed four regional self-governing institutions for culture outside Lisbon, in the north, in the central area, in Alentejo and the Algarve.

There are also other government agencies and institutions involved in cultural activities:

  • General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments (Direc√ß√£o Geral dos Edif√≠cios e Monumentos Nacionais) is attached to the Ministry of Public Works. Together with the Ministry of Culture, it is in charge of planning and managing the restoration and preservation of historic monuments;
  • State Secretariat for Tourism (Secretaria de Estado do Turismo), attached to the Ministry of Trade and Tourism;
  • Ministry of National Defence (Minist√©rio da Defesa Nacional), responsible for military and similar museums and collections;
  • Ministry of Internal Administration (Minist√©rio da Administra√ß√£o Interna) is in charge of coordinating the activities of local administrative bodies.

Regional and local governments

The support for culture on the regional level and its incorporation in the general technical and financial framework of regional development is assured by a network of local commissions covering the mainland territory. There are five commissions corresponding to the following regions:

  • Algarve,
  • Alentejo,
  • Centre,
  • North,
  • Lisbon and Tegus Valley.

Continental Portugal is divided into 335 municipalities (30 more are spread over Madeira and the Açores Islands) which are grouped in 18 districts.

The local authorities exercise their mandates in the preservation of municipal culture and heritage. The district assemblies are authorized to establish and maintain local museums and to manage the research, conservation and presentation of archaeological, historical, folklore and artistic values.

Cultural affairs in the autonomous regions of Madeira and the Azores are managed by their local departments for culture, whose competencies correspond to those of the central government. The organizational model in these regions is roughly the following:

  • Regional Government of the Azores (Governo Regional dos A√ßores)
    a) Regional Secretariat for Education and Culture (Secretaria Regional de Educação e Cultura)
    b) Regional Directorate for Cultural Affairs (Direcção Regional dos Assuntos Culturais)
  • Regional Government of Madeira (Governo Regional da Madeira)
    a) Regional Secretariat for Tourism and Culture (Secretaria Regional do Turismo e Cultura)
    b) Regional Directorate for Culture (Direcção Regional da Cultura).

2.2 Facilities and institutions

The Ministry of Culture also manages the activities of several other public bodies for coordination, national funds and councils:

  • Cultural Promotion Fund (Fundo de Fomento Cultural), in charge of financial subsidies for the development of different sectors of culture, providing scholarships and prizes for the arts,
  • Portuguese National Library and National Book Institute (Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro),
  • Portuguese Institute for Cinematography and the Audiovisual Arts (Instituto Portugu√™s da Arte Cinematogr√°fica e do Audiovisual),
  • Portuguese Cinemateca (Cinemateca Portuguesa ‚Äď Museu do Cinema),
  • Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (Instituto Portugu√™s do Patrimonio Arquitect√≥nico e Arqueol√≥gico),
  • Portuguese Symphony Orchestra (Orquestra Sinf√≥nica Potuguesa),
  • Oporto Classical Orchestra (Orquestra Cl√°ssica do Porto),
  • Portuguese Institute of Museums (Instituto Portugu√™s de Museus),
  • Drama Institute (Instituto das Artes C√©nicas),
  • National Dance Company (Companhia Nacional de Bailado e da Dan√ßa),
  • International Academy of Portuguese Culture (Academia Internacional de Cultura Portuguesa),
  • National Academy of Fine Arts (Academia Nacional de Belas-Artes),
  • Portuguese Academy of History (Academia Portuguesa de Hist√≥ria),
  • National Archives Torre de Tombo (Arquivo Nacional Torre de Tombo).

Five regional delegations for culture covering the Portuguese mainland and belonging directly to the administrative structure of the State Secretariat for Culture are the main factor in the decentralization of culture. The Regional Delegations of North, Centre, Lisbon, Alentejo and Algarve (Delegação Regional do Norte, Delegação Regional do Centro, Delegação Regional de Lisboa, Delegação Regional do Alentejo, Delegação Regional do Algarve) coordinate development on the regional level and supervise projects outside the scope of the national cultural programme.

Culture & Entertainment - Expat Guide to Portugal | Expatica

Non-governmental and mixed institutions

The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is a privately financed organization supporting a wide range of cultural institutions and programmes in all sectors. It coordinates a major network of libraries in the country, runs two museums, a symphony orchestra and a dance troupe. It manages the activities of research institutes and publishes a series of periodical reviews of art and literature.

It also provides support for independent bodies and individuals, as well as scholarships for research in Portuguese culture. Internationally, it runs several cultural centres located in the main world capitals, dedicated exclusively to the promotion of the Portuguese language and culture.

The National Centre for Culture (Centro Nacional de Cultura) is a private association founded in 1945 and dedicated to the public promotion of cultural issues and safeguarding of cultural heritage. It aims to be a connecting link between those whose paths do not normally cross: old and young people, artists and businessmen, public and private sector.

The Serralves Foundation (Fundação da Serralves) in Oporto is a mixed institution dedicated to promoting cultural events.

The Discoveries Foundation (Fundação das Descobertas) in Lisbon is an official institution for the administration and support of cultural activities of the Belem Cultural Centre (Centro Cultural de Belem).

The Fundação Oriente is a private institution supporting and carrying out activities of a cultural, artistic and philanthropic nature, having Portugal and Macao as privileged areas.



3.1 Financing of cultural activities

Financial resources to subsidize culture in Portugal are provided both on the central and local levels. Although still rather marginal in the total amounts spent on culture, the private sector continuously increases its share. The Sponsorship Law has been adopted; sponsorship payments are tax deductible and are treated as normal business expenditure, provided the level of expenditure is reasonable in relation to the company’s activities.

According to the Law, maximum corporate relief for donations is 0.2 per cent of turnover, plus 50 per cent relief for donations in excess of this. The three most important foundations are the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, the Fundação Oriente and the Fundação Luso-Americana para o desenvolvimento.

For example, the most important of the mentioned foundations, the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian ensures some 25 per cent of all the funding of the arts and culture in Portugal. As far as it concerns the share of government cultural expenditure in 1995, it was as follows:

Instituto Português de Museus 12.9
Fundação das Descobertas 12.3
Instituto das Artes Cénicas (The Drama Institute) 11.4
Fundação Nacional de S. Carlos 9.1
Archives and Libraries 8.6
Library and Book Institute 7.4 Culture Promotion Fund 7
Architecture and Archaeology 5.4
General Directorate for Cultural Events 5.3
General Directorate for Services of Administration Organization 3.5
The Dance Institute, Art Academies, Cabinet for International Relations, Film and Audiovisual Art, regional delegations and Cabinet of the Secretary of State and Under-secretary of state all shared the expenditure from 0.4 to 2.7 per cent.
It is notable that most of the funds allocated to culture are spent on cultural heritage and the promotion of Portuguese discoveries.

3.2 Legislation
According to the Sponsorship Law, sponsorship payments are tax deductible and are treated as normal business expenditure.


4.1 Cultural heritage
The Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeologial Heritage (Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico e Arqueológico) is the main coordinating body dedicated to the safeguarding of cultural property.
The Portuguese Institute of Museums (Instituto Português de Museus) coordinates most public museums and cultural properties.
The Torre do Tombo National Archives is an institution in charge of most Portuguese archives and the Torre do Tombo Archives in Lisbon.
4.2 Cultural education and training
4.3 Performing arts
Two national theatres (Teatro Nacional de S. Carlos and Teatro Nacional D. Maria II) and the national ballet company (Companhia Nacional de Bailado e da Dança) are supervised by the State Secretariat for Culture. There are also a number of professional theatre companies and international theatre festivals, for instance, the International Festival of Iberic Expression Theatre held in Oporto.
4.4 Visual and fine arts
Besides the National Academy of Fine Arts and the National Fine Arts Society, there are also several regular events like the Biennale of Design and the Biennale in Vila Nova de Cerveira.
4.5 Literature and literary production
The Portuguese Institute for the National Library and Books (Instituto Português da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro) supervises the work of the National Library and promotes books, publishing and translation activities.
The other most important organizations involved in literature and literary production are: Associação Portuguesa de Escritores, Sociedade de Língua Portuguesa, Associação de Jornalistas e Homens de Letras do Porto, Associação Portuguesa de Editores e Livreiros and Associação Portuguesa dos Bibliotecários, Arquivistas e Documentalistas.
Two big Book Fairs are held annually (in Lisbon and in Oporto), organized by the Associação Portuguesa de Editores e Livreiros. 23 regional and local fairs are organized over the whole country.
4.6 Music
The governmental responsibility for music lies within the Direcção-Geral dos Espetáculos and the Teatro Nacional de S. Carlos.
Opera and music also benefit from special services of some private foundations.
There are also a number of musical groups, 20 associations, 10 academies and some 15 conservatories and music schools that offer various music degrees. Also, a number of music festivals are run all over the country.


5.1 Book publishing
The Portuguese Institute for the National Library and Books (Instituto Português da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro) is in charge of planning and implementing the measures to support publishing (its frame of reference does not include schoolbooks).
The Institute provides subsidies for the publication of quality titles in Portugal and for foreign translation and publication of Portuguese literature. The Institute also helps the literary associations with their programmes. Together with the Portuguese Publishers and Booksellers Association, it supports thirteen national book fairs and Portuguese participation in international book fairs.
A number of municipal libraries receive subsidies to enlarge their holdings and rebuild the facilities. The Institute awards grants to scholars studying the Portuguese language/literature/culture, and together with various other institutions, it supervises and finances several literary prizes.
5.2 Press
The main body responsible for managing subsidies for the information media is the Presidency of the Government. It also handles the distribution of official information, governmental publicity, documentation, and relations with journalists.
Upon the recommendation of a committee consisting of professionals and representatives of the Directorate, projects of technological modernization are chosen for subsidies. A similar procedure is followed in the selection of general information newspapers that receive subsidies. A reduction of telecommunication rates and ground travel expenses for journalists are also provided, and training programmes for journalists are supported.
5.3 Broadcasting and sound recording industry
In 1995, there were three transmission/broadcasting organizations in Portugal: Radiotelevisão Portuguesa (RTP), Sociedade Indipendente de Comunicação (SIC) and Televisão Indipendente (TVI). RTP covers four channels: Canal 1, TV-2, RTP-Madeira and RTP-Açores. Canal 1 covers 98 per cent of the population, TV-2 80 per cent, RTP-Madeira 96,9 per cent and RTP-Açores 89,5 per cent. Canal 1 had 117 programming hours a week in 1995 and TV-2 94.
RTP also broadcasts at the international level.
Commercial revenues of the RTP amounted to 69 per cent and grants to 31 per cent in 1995.
Cultural share in programming is as follows: music accounts for 3,4 per cent of the RTP programme and arts/humanities/sciences for 3,7 per cent.
At the beginning of 1996, Portugal had four cable operator companies.
There were 3,134.000 TV households in Portugal in 1995 and 1,434.000 VCR households. 6 per cent of the population possessed double equipment of VCRs in the same year.
5.4 Cinema and film industry
The Institute for Cinematography and the Audiovisual Arts (Instituto Português da Arte Cinematográfica e Audiovisual) coordinates cultural initiatives in support of the national film production and distribution. The funds for its activities come from tax levies on the distribution of full-length films (with the exception of those classified as quality titles) and advertising films on TV and in the cinema. No other assigned government subsidies are allocated.
Limited subsidies are provided automatically for all national producers of full-length films, as additional aid to cover production costs. A national committee of appointed experts selects full-length films for state subsidies and loans. Dissemination of national films is also supported, as well as the rebuilding and construction of new cinemas and the Portuguese Cinemateca.
In 1995, there were 8 film production companies in Portugal.


The participation in cultural life, according to most recent surveys, shows that marked differences between urban and rural areas of the country still persist. Modern cultural life is more easily practised in cities, especially big ones, while the participation of the population in rural areas falls behind.

However, the ever growing presence of the media is generally shaping a more home-based model of cultural consumption, making the same goods equally accessible for all the inhabitants, regardless of their environment and distance from, or proximity to, cultural facilities.

Public measures to stimulate participation and creativity have increased in the most recent period. This is particularly true with regard to young people, where the Institute for Youth and some other bodies have introduced significant incentives, such as ticket price reductions for a wide range of cultural events, stronger media-oriented marketing of cultural projects, etc.